Лексика 4 c Класс 10

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«Лексика 4 c Класс 10»

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

avid |ˈævɪd| (adj) ярый

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

captivity |kæpˈtɪvɪtɪ| (n) неволя

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

cycle |ˈsaɪk(ə)l| (v) ехать на велосипеде

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

danger |ˈdeɪn(d)ʒə| (n) опасность

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

drop |drɒp| (v) бросать

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

extinction |ɪkˈstɪŋ(k)ʃ(ə)n| (n) вымирание, вырождение

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

identity card |aɪˈdentɪtɪ ˈ kɑːd| (n) удостоверение личности

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

litter |ˈlɪtə| (n) мусор, отходы

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

marine life |məˈriːn ˈlaɪf| (n) живые ресурсы моря

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

necessary |ˈnesəs(ə)rɪ| adj) необходимый

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

obligatory |əˈblɪɡət(ə)rɪ| (adj) обязательный

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

own |əʊn| (v) владеть

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

passenger |ˈpæsɪndʒə| (n) пассажир

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

permission |pəˈmɪʃ(ə)n| (n) разрешение, позволение

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

phone call |fəʊn ˈ kɔːl| (n) телефонный звонок

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

recommend |rekəˈmend| (v) рекомендовать

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

seat belt | ˈ siːt ˈ belt| (n) ремень безопасности

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Phrasal Verbs

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

run away from | ˈ rʌn əˈweɪ ˈ frɒm| weak |frəm| phr v) убегать от

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

run into | ˈ rʌn ˈɪntuː| |ˈɪntə| (phr v) натолкнуться

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

run out of | ˈ rʌn ˈ aʊt ˈ ɒv| |əv| (phr v) исчерпать, закончиться

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

run over | ˈ rʌn ˈəʊvə| (phr v) переехать, задавить

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Words often confused

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

weather (n)/whether (conj) погода/ли

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

weather |ˈweðə| (n) погода

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

whether |ˈweðə| conj) ли

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

affect (v)/effect (n) влиять/результат, эффект

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

affect |əˈfekt| (v) влиять

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

effect |ɪˈfekt| (n) результат, эффект

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

dessert (n)/desert / (n) десерт/пустыня

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

dessert |dɪˈzɜːt| (n) десерт

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

desert |ˈdezət| (n) пустыня

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

loose (adj)/lose (v) свободный, просторный/терять

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

loose |luːs| (adj) свободный, просторный

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

lose |luːz| irregular verb:  p.t. — lost  p.p. — lost (v) терять

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Extinct dodo’s DNA linked to pigeons / British team tracks ancestry of humans’ first evolutionary victim By  David Perlman ,Chronicle Science Editor March 1, 2002 Dodo Facts. Chronicle graphic by Todd Trumbull

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

The legendary dodo, a flightless bird extinct for more than 300 years, has yielded its DNA for the first time, and scientists say it is related to pigeons in Southeast Asia and even, though more distantly, to San Francisco’s own flocks of the often-scorned scavengers. From a scrap of skin and a bit of bone, British biologists at Oxford University, together with an American graduate student from Georgia, have created a fascinating genealogy for the weird creature, the most poignant emblem of extinction at the hands of humans.

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Лексика 4 c Класс 10

The genetic findings, along with the volcanic history of the islands in the Indian Ocean where the bird originated, show that the dodos probably descended from an unknown ancestral bird some 42 million years ago that flew from Africa to what are now the Mascarene Islands east of Madagascar. Two separate species of descendants — the dodo (Raphus cucullatus) and a close, flightless relative called the solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria) evolved some 26 million years ago. Millions of years later, they took roost on two separate Indian Ocean islands: the dodo on Mauritius and the solitaire on nearby Rodrigues.

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

DELICATE ANALYSIS The evolutionary history comes from a delicate and difficult kind of DNA analysis that is being reported today in the journal Science by a group headed by famed molecular biologist Alan Cooper of Oxford University and Beth Shapiro, a Rhodes scholar less than three years out of the University of Georgia. The dodo survived on Mauritius for millennia, but in the 1500s sailors began hunting them, and the species became extinct when the last survivor there was shot in 1681, according to historical records.

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

One bird, however, was stuffed and has been mounted in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History for more than 150 years. The exhibit once fascinated Charles Dodgson, the young mathematician who, as Lewis Carroll, wrote the classic «Alice in Wonderland,» wherein the dodo served as the peremptory judge of a hilariously disorganized racing event. It was from that Oxford museum specimen that Cooper obtained his dodo tissue for Shapiro to work out the sequence of the bird’s gene fragments, he said yesterday by e-mail.

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

DNA COMPARISON Shapiro and the team compared the dodo DNA with gene sequences from the bone of a solitaire that Jeremy Austin of the London Museum of Natural History had discovered in a limestone cave on Rodrigues island, where he was studying giant tortoises. After finding that the sequences of the two extinct birds closely resembled the genetic material of modern pigeons, the group compared their dodo genes with 35 different pigeon species and worked out the relationships among them all.

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Лексика 4 c Класс 10

It turned out that the dodo’s closest living relative is the Nicobar pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica) from the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal — a species that today is kept in many zoos around the world, including a colony in the research aviaries of the California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park that are not open to the public. RELATED TO PIGEONS According to Cooper, the dodo’s living relatives do indeed include San Francisco’s pigeons, (Columba fasciata). «It’s a distant relationship,» Cooper said. «Common pigeons are the rats of the bird world — but only in the sense that they’re incredibly adaptable. The pigeon family is huge, at least 300 species, demonstrating that the whole group has been very successful at adapting to new niches.»

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

But as a warning to the fantasy-minded who think it might now be possible to re-create a dodo from its DNA, Cooper said: «It is impossible to bring back extinct species by ‘cloning’ them, despite rumors to the contrary, because DNA decays rapidly after death, and only incredibly small fragments survive after a short amount of time. «Furthermore, the finances required for such an effort, which would be scientifically futile, would be much better spent on conserving the species and their environments that survive around us today, rather than any anthropomorphic pursuit of large, cute extinct species for a pipe-dream zoo display.»

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

‘MUCH-CLEARER PICTURE’ To Douglas J. Long, acting chairman of birds and mammals at the California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, the Oxford research is extremely important because, as he said yesterday, «now we have a much clearer picture of the evolution of the dodo, and for pigeons as a whole. “And he added: «The extinction of a species isn’t just a tragedy for poets and environmentalists, but it’s a huge loss for scientists. For with each passing of a species, we lose a unique and irreplaceable source of information for understanding the complexities of evolution.

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Лексика 4 c Класс 10

«In this case the researchers managed to salvage some of that information, but it is just a fragment in proportion to all the other unknown aspects of that species. Elements such as behavior, vocalization, reproduction, plumage, anatomy, diet and ecology will, perhaps, never be known.»

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

on the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

on the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

to the Island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. It became extinct in the late 1700’s.

Dodo Bird (Raphus cucullatus) a flightless Bird that was endemic

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Here is some information about the dodo bird: Appearance: Large, plump bird with small, weak wings that could not lift it into the air, making it easy prey for human predators. It had a large hooked beak, and a plume of white feathers adorned its otherwise gray body. Weight: 40 to 50 pounds Habitat: Portugese sailors discovered the dodo on the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean in 1598. Having never seen humans, the bird was not frightened by humans. Sailors mistook its lack of fear as stupidity, and dubbed the bird ‘dodo.»

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Pounds (lb) Kilograms (kg) Kilograms and Grams (kg + gms) 40 lb 18.144 kg 18 kg 144 gms 41 lb 18.597 kg 18 kg 597 gms 42 lb 19.051 kg 19 kg 51 gms 43 lb 19.504 kg 19 kg 504 gms 50 lb 22,6796 kg 22 kg 677 gms

Лексика 4 c Класс 10

Extinction: Many dodo birds were killed by humans. Dogs and pigs introduced onto the island of Mauritius preyed on its eggs. By 1681, the dodo was gone, making it the first example of how humans can drive another species to extinction. March 1, 2002

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