Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Самоучитель

Данная разработка предназначена для 1 курса по теме: Тема 1.5 Здоровый образ жизни и забота о здоровье: режим труда и отдыха, порт, сбалансированное питание, посещение врача. Отказ от вредных привычек. Роль спорта в современной жизни: виды спорта, экстремальный спорт, спортивные соревнования, Олимпийские игры.

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«Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)»

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ЛЕСНОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА

И ОХРАНЫ ОБЪЕКТОВ ЖИВОТНОГО МИРА НИЖЕГОРОДСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

Государственное бюджетное профессиональное

образовательное учреждение Нижегородской области

«КРАСНОБАКОВСКИЙ ЛЕСНОЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»

(ГБПОУ НО «КБЛК»)

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (Английский язык)»

для студентов I курса 4 часть

Тема 1.5 Здоровый образ жизни и забота о здоровье: режим труда и отдыха, порт, сбалансированное питание, посещение врача. Отказ от вредных привычек. Роль спорта в современной жизни: виды спорта, экстремальный спорт, спортивные соревнования, Олимпийские игры.

Составили:

преподаватели

иностранного языка

Воронина М.В.,

Булкина Т.А.

Красные Баки

2023 год

Lesson 1

Healthy life

1. Read and translate the text

So, it’s good to have healthy habits. Some people believe that the number thirteen brings bad luck. Instead, today, the number thirteen is going to bring your health!

The first healthy habit is to eat breakfast every morning. Eating breakfast can help people feel better through the day. Students who eat breakfast usually do better at college! A good breakfast includes fruits, vegetables, and grains.

The second healthy habit is to eat fish. The Health Association suggests eating fish two times each week.

The third healthy habit is to sleep enough. Poor sleep quality can affect our memory and learning. Experts advise getting at least seven hours of sleep a night.

The fourth healthy habit is to make social connections. Spending time with other people can also help reduce stress. An active mind is a healthy mind!

The fifth healthy habit is to exercise. Exercise is very important for good health. It helps control a person’s body weight. Exercising helps grow healthy muscles, bones, and joints. It reduces the risk of high blood pressure and diabetes. Exercising reduces the risk of death from heart diseases. Exercise helps people to think and move better. It helps manage stress, improves emotions, and gives people lots of energy!

The sixth healthy habit is to care for your teeth. Research shows that taking care of your teeth can add over six years to your life! So remember to wash, brush and clean between your teeth!

The seventh healthy habit is to have a hobby. A hobby is something that you enjoy doing. It could be running, reading or making something with your hands. Hobbies help people to relax and rest. Hobbies bring us joy.

The eighth healthy habit is to protect your skin. The sun produces ultraviolet, or UV rays. These rays can harm our skin.

The ninth healthy habit is to eat healthy between meals. Eating between meals is called snacking. Many people snack on unhealthy foods — foods that are high in sugar, salt or fat. Fruits and vegetables are a better choice. Remember an apple a day keeps the doctor away.

The tenth healthy habit is to drink water. Our bodies are made of mostly water. In fact, our bodies are sixty to seventy percent water! Water helps our bodies work right. Water helps to clear our bodies of harmful waste materials. Eight glasses of water a day does a body good! The eleventh healthy habit is to drink tea. The twelfth healthy habit is to take a walk every day. The thirteenth healthy habit is to have a plan. So, the best way to be healthy is to make a plan.

2. Say if the statements are True or False. Correct the False ones:

1. Exercise helps people to think and move better.

2. Fast food helps to clear our bodies of harmful waste materials.

3. A good breakfast includes fruits, vegetables, and grains.

4. Many people snack only meat or fish.

5. Hobbies bring us stress.

3. Match the words and word-combinations with Russian equivalent

1. health

2. bad / poor health

3. good health

4. to be in bad/poor/ill health

5.to enjoy good health

6. to do exercises

7. regular exercise

8. not to take drugs

9. to jog in the morning

10. to keep to a diet

11. to keep fit

a) заботиться о здоровье

b) хрупкое здоровье, ослабленный организм

c) регулярные занятия

d) иметь слабое здоровье

e) придерживаться диеты

f) здоровье

g) упражняться

h) крепкое здоровье

i) не принимать наркотики бегать трусцой

j) не принимать наркотики

k) придерживаться диеты быть в добром здравии

4. Put the word-combinations into the columns:

We must

We must not

Be healthy; smoke; wash hands; clean the house; eat too much; drink the alcohol; eat the snow; breathe in fresh air; go in for sport; eat fruit and vegetables; do morning exercises; eat too many sweets; go to bed late; keep our body clean; be sleepy; sleep eight hours; visit the doctor regularly; clean the teeth; feel fine; feel sick; have headache; have a bad cold; drink very cold water.

5. Study the material “Modal verbs”:

Модальные глаголы являются одним из средств выражения модальности. Эти глаголы обозначают не конкретные действия, а выражают лишь отношение говорящего к действию. С их помощью говорящий показывает, что он считает то или иное действие возможным, невозможным, вероятным, необходимым, желательным и т.д. Поэтому модальные глаголы употребляются не самостоятельно, а только в сочетании с инфинитивом смыслового глагола.

Модальный

глагол и его

эквивалент

Что

выражает

Настоящее

время

Прошедшее

время

Будущее

время

can

мочь, уметь, быть в состоянии

can

could

will be able to

to be able to

am/is/are able to

was/were able to

will be able to

may

мочь, иметь разрешение

may

might

will be allowed to

to be allowed to

am/is/are allowed to

was/were allowed to

will be allowed to

must

быть должным

must

had to

will have to

to have to

вынужден, приходится

to have/has to

had to

will have to

ought to

следует, следовало бы

ought to

to be to

должен

(по плану)

am/is/are to

was/were to

shall

обязан,

должен

shall

should

следует, следовало бы

should

will

желать, намереваться

will

would

желать, вероятно, бывало

would

need

нуждаться

need

dare

сметь

dare

dared

Особенности употребления модальных глаголов:

1. Модальный глагол всегда употребляется со смысловым глаголом, который стоит в начальной форме без частицы to (We must do it. She could see them).

2. Модальные глаголы имеют одну форму во всех лицах и числах. Исключение have to, принимает форму has после местоимений he, she, it. (He can swim. We can swim)

3. Модальные глаголы всегда стоят в настоящем времени (даже в контексте будущего времени), однако некоторые из них могут принимать прошедшую форму: can — could; may — might, must — had to.

4. В отрицательных и вопросительных предложениях модальные глаголы не употребляются со вспомогательными, за исключением have to. (I can not swim. Can you swim?)

6. Change sentences in the past and future:

1. They may read a book now.

2. She can speak English very well.

3. You must read for your exam today.

7. Answer the questions using modal verbs:

1. Will you help me with my task?

2. Can you answer my question?

3. Must we do this test in writing?

4. Shall I speak to him immediately?

5. Would you like another cup of tea?

8. Translate the sentences using modal verbs:

1. Можно войти?

2. Она умела читать, когда ей было пять лет.

3. Ему нужен ваш совет.

4. Вам следовало бы подумать об этом раньше.

5. Я не хочу (не буду) помогать им.

6. Ему нужно остаться в колледже после занятий.

7. Ты мог бы учиться лучше.

8. Нам пришлось брать такси, чтобы успеть на поезд.

9. К сожалению, они вынуждены остаться в городе во время летних каникул.

10. Студенты должны прийти в колледж до того, как куратор отметит отсутствующих.

Lesson 2

Sport and Games

1. Read the text «Sports and Games»

We are sure you are all interested in sport. Many of you certainly play such games as volleyball or football, basketball or tennis. People who play a game are players. Players form teams and play matches with other teams — their opponents. Two players playing with each other are partners. Each team can lose or win. In a football match players try to score as many goals as they can. Most matches take place in large stadiums.

Athletics is the most popular sport. People call it "the queen of all sports". It comprises such kinds of sports as running (for different distances), jumping (long and high jumps) and others. From time to time international championships and races (horse races, motor races, cycle races) take place. Representatives of various countries can win gold, silver or bronze medals. Such great championships in sport are organized every four years and we call them the Olympic Games. Only the best may take part in them.

There are so many kinds of sports, such as cycling, swimming, gymnastics, boxing, skating, skiing, rowing, yachting and many more in which you can take an active part or just be a devoted fan.

2. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.

  1. People who play a game are sportsmen.

  2. Two players playing with each other are opponents.

  3. Gymnastics is the queen of all sports.

  4. The most popular sport is tennis.

  5. Athletics comprises such kinds of sports as running, jumping, racewalking, throwing and others.

  6. International championships take place every four years.

  7. The Olympic Games are a major international championship in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions.

  8. The Olympic Games are organized every five years.

  9. Everyone who likes sport can take part in the Olympic Games.

  10. The athletes or teams who place first, second or third in each event receive medals.

3. Translate the definitions:

a) to play a sport — when we speak about games in which one tries to win against another person or team. Examp1e: to play football -||- tennis, -||- handball.

b) to do a sport — when we speak about a sport that is not a team sport.

Example: aerobics, gymnastics, exercise.

c) to be into a sport (informal) — when we speak about being inter­ested or absorbed in sport. Example: She is into yoga.

d) to go V-ing — is used when we speak about sport activity which is not done professionally. Example: to go swimming, to go skiing, etc. — Jack goes swimming.

(It means that he is not a professional swimmer. It’s his hobby and he doesn’t do it regularly.)

e) to V — to swim, to ski, etc. (This expression is used when we speak about sport, which is done professionally / competitively.) Example: Jack swims. (It means that he is a professional swimmer who takes part in competitions.)

4. Go, do or play? Use them in the correct form.

1. He… jogging every morning.

2. I love … a good game of chess from time to time.

  1. She … gymnastics.

  2. This summer we … windsurfing every day on our holiday.

  1. He’s quite the athlete. He … basketball, baseball and hockey.

  2. My wife … horse riding twice a week.

  3. Why don’t we … a set of tennis?

  4. Some people think that … aerobics four times a week is the best possible way of keeping fit.

9. His idea of the perfect summer holiday is to rent a sailboat and … sailing between the islands of the Tuscan archipelago.

10. They wear backpacks when they… hiking.

5. Study the material “Past Simple”:

1) Прошедшее простое время

2) Регулярное действие, факты в прошлом

3) Указатели времени:

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yesterday – вчера

last week (month, year) – на прошлой неделе (месяце, году)

two days ago – 2 дня тому назад

4) Вспомогательные глаголы – did (употребляются только в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях)

5) Положительное предложение

V2

V2 = Ved

6) Отрицательное предложение

V1

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

did not

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

7) Общий вопрос

V1

Did

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

?

8) Специальный вопрос

V1

Wh. did

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

?

6. Write regular verbs in past simple and divide them into 3 groups:

Walk, dream, wash, drop, hope, stop, spell, dry, cry, watch, dust, cook, play, open, talk, want, clean, work, cover.

[t]

[d]

[id]

7. Make negative sentences:

  1. Vlad went to college last year.

  2. She swam very well a year ago.

  3. They spoke English last lesson.

  4. He asked me a difficult question yesterday.

  5. Father gave him a new book last week.

8. Make positive sentences:

  1. My friend didn’t write a test yesterday.

  2. I didn’t watch a new film last week.

  3. Mary didn’t write a letter a week ago.

  4. They didn’t play basketball yesterday.

  5. We didn’t jog last morning.

9. Make up questions to the sentences:

  1. Sam went to school last year.

  2. Kate and Nick played tennis yesterday.

  3. We discussed the film a week ago.

  4. I met my teacher last month.

  5. He read the interesting book yesterday.

10. Open the brackets and write the text:

Ann (have) a problem at school last week. She (be) in class and her tooth (start) to hurt. The next day her mother (take) her to the dentist. The dentist (look) at Ann’s teeth and (see) a bad one. He (take) the bad tooth out. The next day Ann (go) to school.

11. Translate into English:

1. Алиса купила хлеб в магазине вчера.

2. Они ходили в ресторан на прошлой неделе.

3. Он не знал, как приготовить кашу.

4. Мой друг построил кафе в прошлом месяце.

5. Мы плавали в море прошлым летом.

6. Ник не понял, как правильно соблюдать диету.

7. Мы хотели выиграть эти соревнования.

Lesson 3

Healthy or junk food

1. Read, translate the text and answer the questions

It’s important for people to eat as much as they need to give them energy. If they eat too little food or the wrong food, they won’t have enough energy. If they eat too much, they will need to make more exercise; otherwise they will put on weight. When we eat the correct quantity of food for the exercise we take, we call this the energy balance.

Fat is very high in calories, and so is no help at all in keeping energy balance. Fat has also been linked with heart disease, and many experts believe that eating less would help to reduce it. Sugar isn’t good for the energy balance either. The only value of the diet is to provide energy, and you can get that from other foods. There’s no doubt that too much sugar makes you fat and it doesn’t do your teeth much good either.

Fibre, on the other hand is something that we eat too little of. One of the simplest ways of eating more fibre is to eat more bread, particularly whole meal, granary, or high fibre bread. It’s a good, cheap source of fibre and nutrients without too many calories. Potatoes are good, too. Like bread, they are underrated, but they’re excellent for filling you up without making you fat, especially if you don’t cover them with butter or fry them in fat. So, eat less fatty food (sweets, chocolate, cakes pudding, jam) and eat more fibre foods (bread, potatoes, pasta, fresh fruit and vegetables).

1. Why is exercising necessary for good health?

2. What does "the energy balance" mean?

3. What are fatty foods? Give examples.

4. What are fibre foods? Give examples.

2. Say if the statements are True or False. Correct the False ones:

  1. People won’t need to make exercise if they eat too much.

  2. When people eat too much they put on weight.

  3. Eating less fat would cause heart attacks.

  4. Sugar provides energy, but it causes obesity.

  5. Fibre foods are good for the energy balance.

3. Guess what it is:

1. This is a vegetable. This is not a sweet vegetable. It is long. Its colour is green. You can eat it in a salad. What is it?

2. This is a vegetable. This is a sweet vegetable. It is long. Its colour is red or orange. You can eat it in a salad or soup. What is it?

3. This is a fruit. This is a sweet fruit. It is round. Its colour is red or yellow or green. What is it?

4. This is a fruit. This is not a sweet fruit. It’s not round. It’s not long. It’s oval. Its colour is yellow. You can have it in your tea. What is it?

5. This is a vegetable. This is usually a round vegetable. Its colour is red. You can eat it in a salad. What is it?

6. This is a fruit. It is sweet and juicy. It is small and round. It grows on trees. What is it?

7. This is a vegetable. It is not sweet. It is big and round. Its colour is green. You can eat it in a salad. What is it?

4. Complete the sentences. Use expressions but be careful — there is one too many: citrus fruits, dairy, avoid, contain, low-fat, poultry, vitamin C, meat, sweets, heart, milk

  1. The teenagers need a balanced diet, but their parents should help them eat meals high in … every day.

  2. They can find it in tomatoes, potatoes, green peppers, and … .

  3. Spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes also should be on a teenager´s plate because they … vitamin A.

  4. The children grow and need proteins, so make sure they eat … or … .

  5. To help their bones, the teenagers should consume … products, such as … .

  6. In general, try to choose … food, they will have healthier … when they are older.

  7. And definitely … fried food.

5. Study the material “Spelling rules”:

ed

walk – walked

talk – talked

answer – answered

e = —d

Dance – danced

Like – liked

Arrive — arrived

double consonant + —ed

prefer – preferred

stop – stopped

travel — travelled

Consonant + y = ied

study – studied

tidy – tidied

carry — carried

vowel + y = —yed

play – played

enjoy – enjoyed

stay — stayed

6. Write the past simple of the following verbs in the right place:

close, finish, hurry, like, open, prepare, terrify, touch, try, want, step, serve, stay, pray, enjoy, cook, plan, admit, bury, wrap, trace, spray, rely, ask, supply, trap, jog, obey, type, play

Verb + -ed

Verb + -d

Vowel + y + -ed

Consonant + y + ied

Double consonant + -ed

7. Fill in the blanks with the past simple of the verbs in brackets

1. Janet … (watch) a film on TV.

2. The car … (stop) in the middle of the street.

3. My mother … (divide) the cake in six.

4. Karen and Sara … (play) computer games.

5. Mr. Harris … (carry) the heavy boxes to the attic.

8. Fill in the gaps with the Past Simple (negative) of the verbs in brackets.

  1. David … (not / watch) the film in the cinema.

  2. Carol … (not / appear) for the party.

  3. My parents … (not / book) a table in the restaurant.

  4. Peter … (not / close) the door when he entered.

  5. Nicole … (not / follow) my advice.

  6. The jewels … (not / disappear).

  7. I … (not / wait) for you because I was in a hurry.

  8. Mrs. Underwood … (not / recognise) me.

  9. The students … (not / identify) the subject in the sentence.

  10. Caroline … (not / like) to be disturbed.

9. Use the interrogative form of the Past Simple

  1. … (the girl / blush) when her boyfriend kissed her?

  2. … (Caroline / like) to be disturbed?

  3. … (you / explain) the reason?

  4. … (Mum / cook) dinner yesterday?

  5. … (the pupil / ask) any question?

  6. … (the girl / enjoy) the birthday party?

  7. … (you / visit) the museum last weekend?

  8. … (Charles / arrive) early last night?

  9. … (the secretary / cancel) the meeting?

  10. … (Mrs. Clark / water) the plants?

10. Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets in the Past Simple:

  1. They … (take) the train to go to London.

  2. She … (ride) her bike under the rain.

  3. They … (make) pancakes for Shrove Tuesday.

  4. She … (come) alone at the party.

  5. I … (buy) a new laptop last week.

  6. We … (forget) the meeting last Monday.

  7. They … (go) to Madrid last year.

  8. We … (drive) all the way to Paris.

  9. My sister … (cut) herself doing DIY jobs.

  10. They … (sleep) well all night.

Lesson 4

At the doctor’s

1. Read the text «John’s illness»

It is early spring now and many people catch cold. A month ago I suddenly fell ill. I ran a high temperature. I sneezed and had a sore throat. Also I had a headache and a cough. My whole body ached. My mother made hot tea for me but that didn’t help me much. She wanted to give me some pills too, but there weren’t any in our house. My mother told me to stay in bed, then she called a doctor. The doctor came. He examined my lungs, felt my pulse and took my temperature. He said that I had had the flu and told me to stay in bed and to have a rest. He prescribed me the treatment. My mother bought me all the necessary pills and other medicine at the chemist’s. I followed all the doctor’s instructions and very soon I felt much better. In ten days I fully recovered and went to school again.

2. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.

1. Many people catch cold in early spring. _________

2. John didn’t run a high temperature. __________

3. John’s mother gave him some pills and they brought down the temperature. ______

4. The mother told John to stay in bed. _________

5. The doctor said that John had to go to hospital. __________

6. The doctor prescribed the pills that were hard to get at the chemist’s. ________

7. Soon John felt much better because he had followed the doctor’s advice. _________

8. John returned to school in five days.

3. Write the verbs in brackets in Past Simple and choose the correct word:

Brian … (to go) to the doctor. His mother … (to take) him there for a checkup. He also needed to get a flu shot, so he … (to be) a little nervous. After Brian and his mother … (to arrive) at the doctor’s office, they … (to sit) in the waiting room for about ten minutes. Then a nurse … (to call) for Brian. He and his mother went to another smaller room and the nurse … (to tell) Brian to step on a scale. She weighed him and measured his height. Next, the nurse … (to ask) him some questions.

When the doctor came into the room, he listened to Brian’s heart and 1… with a stethoscope. He checked Brian’s eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and other parts of his body. He was a very nice doctor. At the end of the visit, the nurse returned with a small syringe. "This is going to be fast and easy," said the nurse. "You don’t want to get the flue, 2…?" The nurse rubbed a little alcohol on his upper arm. Brian turned his face away. He knew the 3 … was necessary. Soon it was over. After the visit to the doctor’s 4 … , Brian and his mother went to the park. Brian was happy to know that he won’t need another shot until next year when he visits the doctor again.

  1. A) lungs; B) legs; C) head; D) throat.

  2. A) do you; B) don’t you; C) are you; D) did you.

  3. A) treatment; B) medicine; C) shot; D) visit.

  4. A) cabinet; B) room; C) hall; D) office.

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4. Look at the statements (a) to (g). Which do you think the doctor said to each of the following patients?

1. Nick who’s broken his arm.

2. Mary with flu.

3. Sally with a bad cough.

4. Ted who’s sprained his ankle.

5. Sam who needs his appendix out.

6. Sarah who’s ill and very weak.

7. Mr. Brown’s ear hurts.

a) Take one three times a day after meals.

b) I think you should have a total bed rest for a week.

c) Take a teaspoonful last thing at night.

d) Put these drops into the ear twice a day.

e) You’ll have to have your arm put in plaster.

f) I’ll ask the surgeon when he can fit you in for an operation.

g) We’ll get a nurse to put a bandage on.

5. Match the words with their definitions:

1. syringe

2. disease

3. illness

4. GP

5. fever

6. sick leave

7. prescription

8. treatment

9. pill

10. vaccination

11. nurse

12. cure

a) the state of being ill

b) a small, hard piece of medicine that you swallow

c) a doctor who sees people in the local area and treats illnesses that do not need a hospital visit

d) an illness caused by an infection or by a failure of health and not by an accident

e) bringing an illness or injury to and end or making it disappear

f) a small tube with a needle at the end used for putting liquids into things

g) an injection given in order to prevent someone from getting a disease

h) time a person spends away from work because of illness or injury

i) a person whose job is to care for people who are ill

j) if you have it your body temperature is higher and your heart beats faster

k) a piece of paper on which a doctor writes what medicine you need to take

l) medical attention given to a sick or injured person or animal

6. Study the material “Present Progressive”:

Настоящее длительное время. Обозначает действие, которое происходит прямо сейчас.

Указатели времени:

at this moment – в этот момент, now — сейчас

Вспомогательные глаголы:

am ( I ), is (he, she, it), are (we, you, they)

Правила образования глагола с окончанием —ing:

1. К инфинитиву добавляется окончание «-ing», например: to work — working

2. Если инфинитив заканчивается на непроизносимую гласную e, то она опускается, например: to write — writing

3. Если инфинитив заканчивается на y, то буква остается без изменений, например: to play — playing

4. Если инфинитив заканчивается на буквы ie, то они меняются на букву y, например: to lie — lying, to die — dying.

5. Удвоение конечной согласной происходит, если слово оканчивается на согласную букву, перед которой есть ударный гласный звук, например: to put — putting, to swim — swimming

При добавлении -ing удвоение согласных не происходит, если ударение стоит не на предстоящем гласном звуке, или предстоящий – это долгий гласный звук (диграф):

open – opening, remember – remembering, feel – feeling

Конечная буква «x» не удваивается, потому что эта буква передает сразу два звука [ks] или [gz]. Также не удваивается конечная буква «w»: relax – relaxing, snow – snowing,

6. Если слово заканчивающимся на «-r» и имеет последний ударный слог, удвоенная последняя согласная также необходима. Исключение — наличие дифтонгов (сочетание двух гласных звуков в одном слоге): to star – starring; to tear – tearing.

7. Когда глагол заканчивается на l (в британском английском правилу подчиняются любые глаголы, заканчивающиеся на l; в американском — только те, в которых ударение падает на последний слог). Например: to travel — travelling, to rebel — rebelling, to compel — compelling

8. Если инфинитив заканчивается на -ic, то перед -ing окончанием добавляется k, например, to mimic — mimicking (имитировать), to traffic — trafficking (торговать).

Глаголы, которые не употребляются в Present Progressive: они отражают чувства и состояния, а не физические действия:

  1. глаголы умственной деятельности (mental state): to know, to understand, to recognize, to believe, to suppose, to think, to imagine, to doubt, to remember, to forget, to want, to need, to desire, to mean, to consider, to expect

  2. глаголы эмоционального состояния (emotional state): to love, to like, to appreciate, to please, to prefer, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to care, to amaze, to surprise, to adore, to care for, to detest, to hate, to respect

  3. глаголы принадлежности/обладания (possession): to possess, to have, to own, to belong, to include, to lack

  4. глаголы чувственного восприятия (sense perceptions): to taste, to smell, to hear, to feel, to see

  5. другие: to seem, to look, to appear, to sound, to resemble, to cost, to owe, to weigh, to equal, to be, to exist, to matter, to consist of, to contain, to fit

Положительное предложение

I V4(ing)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

am

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

3 л., ед.ч. V4(ing)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

is

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

мн.ч. V4(ing)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

are

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Отрицательное предложение

V4

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

am not

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

3 л., ед.ч. V4

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

is not

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

мн.ч. V4

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

are not

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Общий вопрос

V4

Am

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

?

3л. ед.ч. V4

Is

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

?

мн.ч. V4

Are

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

?

Специальный вопрос

I V4

Wh. am

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

?

3л. ед.ч. V4

Wh. is

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

?

мн.ч. V4

Wh. are

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

Методические указания 1 курс 4 часть (2023 год)

?

7. Add –ing to the verbs and translate them.

read, write, take, sit, play, look, swim, jump, run, go, do, buy, help, eat, clean, make, speak, sleep, listen, talk, fly, lie, die, come, shop, live, sing, dance, work, have, cry, put, use, stop, drive, win.

8. Make up positive sentences and open the brackets, using Present Progressive. Make up the negative and interrogative sentences:

1) Ron and Michael (to sit) at the table and doing their homework now.

2) Carol is busy. She (to type) a letter at the moment.

3) Marta (to play) with other children in her room now.

4) Both my friend and I (to work) at this moment.

5) My parents (to watch) anything on TV right now.

9. Answer the questions using the words given in brackets:

Model: — What are the girls doing? (to have lunch)

They are having lunch.

1) What’s the cook doing? (to fry some potatoes).

2) What are the girls doing now? (to discuss the menu)

3) What’s the woman doing? (to eat Aunt Mary’s apple pie)

4) What are those people doing? (to have coffee)

5) What’s the cook doing now? (to finish his work).

Lesson 5

Unhealthy habits

1. Read the text and answer the questions:

Some people have the bad habit of smoking. They say that smoking helps them to think and forget their problems. They also say that they can’t stop it. Everyone who smokes should be asked to stop this bad habit. Smoking is very harmful to health. Doctors say that there is a strong relation between smoking and many diseases. They say that it causes heart and chest diseases. It also causes cancer. It also costs money and destroys health. For example, most of fires happen as a result of smoking. It is therefore, good for smokers to stop this bad habit immediately.

1. Why do people think that smoking can help them?

2. What harmful does smoking cause?

3. Why is it good for smokers to stop this habit?

4. Does smoking cause cancer?

5. Do you have bad habits?

2. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.

1) Smoking is very harmful for health.

2) Doctors advise smokers to go on smoking.

3) Smoking can cause fire.

4) There is a weak relation between smoking and many diseases.

5) Smoking helps health.

3. Find the opposites of these words in the text:

remember, useful, continue, weak, good

4. Study the material «General questions»

Вопросительные предложения необходимы для получения нужной информации, которая может касаться как самого предмета или действия, так и дополнительных деталей об этом предмете (его характеристика) или действии (время, место, способ его совершения). Именно для всех этих целей существуют следующие 5 типов вопросов в английском языке:

General Question (Общий вопрос)

Special Question (Специальный вопрос)

Who Question (Вопрос к подлежащему)

Alternative question (Альтернативный вопрос)

Tag Question (Разделительный вопрос)

Общий вопрос в английском языке строится с помощью вспомогательного глагола, который может меняться в зависимости от времени и числа. Строятся общие вопросы в английском языке по следующей схеме:

Present Simple: We read a text every lesson. – Do we read a text every lesson?

She gets up early every day. – Does she get up early every day?

He is a student. – Is he a student?

They have a house. – Have they a house?

Kate can write in English. – Can Kate write in English?

Past Simple: Ben wrote an essay yesterday. – Did Ben write an essay yesterday?

They were in Moscow last year. – Were they in Moscow last year?

We had a dog two years ago. – Had we a dog two years ago?

Future Simple: We shall go to Paris next summer. – Shall we go to Paris next summer?

She will read the book tomorrow. – Will she read the book tomorrow?

Present Progressive: I am sleeping right now. – Am I sleeping right now?

He is listening to music now. – Is he listening to music now?

They are playing tennis now. – Are they playing tennis now?

Past Progressive: She was cooking dinner. — Was she cooking dinner?

We were writing the letter. – Were we writing the letter?

Present Perfect: You have seen Jenny today. — Have you seen Jenny today?

He has sent a message already. — Has he sent a message already?

Past Perfect: We had washed the plates. – Had we washed the plates?

5. Make up general questions in Present Simple:

1. Experienced teachers help to create a friendly atmosphere for learning.

2. There is a large and light hall on the ground floor.

3. His brother has 6 lessons every day.

4. She knows many English words.

5. There are many chairs in the classroom.

6. I am a first-year student of the college now.

7. Sam and Sue have got a bike.

8. The film is boring.

9. Her friend lives in London.

10. Our students are hardworking.

6. Make up general questions in Past Simple:

1. I went to the cinema yesterday.

2. We were at the hotel yesterday.

3. Helen had a busy day yesterday

4. The ice-cream was too expensive.

5. They lived in China in 1985 year.

6. There were men in the room waiting for you.

7. Make up general questions in Future Simple:

1. There will be a music festival next month.

2. My friend will start college next year.

3. Larry and Tom will go to the skating-rink in an hour.

4. We shall travel to other countries in future.

5. Mark will go to the swimming-pool next Tuesday.

6. We shall have the History exam in three days.

Lesson 6

Extreme sports

1. Read and translate the text:

Skateboarding has become more than just a popular sport in America. It’s also an accepted form of transportation. Young people skateboard to school, to work, to visit a friend. But the danger of people walking on the streets has forced many towns to pass laws that restrict the use of skateboards. Across the nation, cities and towns are passing laws that keep skateboards off streets and sidewalks, especially in the centre of the town. Says a police officer in New York, ‘If you’re a resident and you’re trying to walk down the street, all it takes is one skateboarder for it to be a problem.’ Skateboarders caught breaking the rules can be punished or have their boards taken away. Skateboarders are angry about the new rules. They say they should be allowed to use skateboarders to travel.

Sky surfing is like surfing and flying at the same time. It’s also very fast and sky surfers must like heights because they have to jump from an aeroplane. Sky surfers work in pairs. One surfer does the tricks and the other one records the tricks with a video camera. In sky surfing competitions, judges watch the videos to decide who is the winner. It looks exciting, but sky surfing is a very dangerous sport. You must know when to use your parachute and how to land safely.

The pilot of this hang-glider doesn’t like flying very much but he says he wants to feel that adrenaline rush everybody talks about. He loves extreme sports and he has trained hard and now he’s ready for his first flight. Hang-gliding can be dangerous and it isn’t cheap (£400 is an average price for a hang-glider). But the excite­ment of the sport is obvious. After all, it’s as near as you can get to flying.

2. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false ones:

  1. Young people use skateboards just for fun.

  2. There are special laws to restrict the use of skateboards in some areas.

  3. Sky surfers can’t be afraid of flying.

  4. Hang-gliding isn’t an expensive sport.

3. Answer these questions with complete sentences:

1. Why is skateboarding dangerous to people?

2. What kind of punishments do skateboarders have if they break the rules?

3. What do sky surfers do?

4. Why is sky surfing considered a dangerous sport?

5. What are the disadvantages of hang-gliding?

  1. Would you like to try any of these sports? Why / Why not?

4. Study the material «Alternative questions»:

Альтернативный вопрос в английском языке подразумевает выбор между двумя или более вариантами, в него всегда входит союз or (или). Чтобы построить альтернативный вопрос, надо добавить в общий вопрос слово or и ещё один вариант к подлежащему (или к сказуемому, дополнению, обстоятельству), чтобы получился выбор.

Is he a pupil or a student? — He is a student.

Have you got a cat or a dog? – I have got a cat.

Do they go to Paris or London? – They go to London.

Does she like pears or apples? – She likes apples.

Did they or we learn English? – We learnt English.

Shall I read or listen a book? – I shall listen a book.

Can you open a window or a door? – I can open a door.

5. Translate the sentences:

  1. Он вчера ходил в школу или в кино?

  2. Ты видишь мою маму или бабушку?

  3. Она спит или нет?

  4. Они могут говорить по-немецки или по-французски?

  5. Соня приедет в понедельник или пятницу?

  6. Он живет в доме или квартире?

  7. Аэропорт большой или маленький?

  8. Сколько человек в твоей семье – три или четыре?

  9. В этом классе находятся студенты или учителя?

  10. Ты на ужин ешь мясо или рыбу каждый день?

6. Answer the questions:

  1. Are there two or four teachers in this class?

  2. Does your father work in the evening or in the daytime?

  3. Which city do you like — Paris or London?

  4. Is he good at Science or Mathematics?

  5. Is your friend’s job interesting or not?

  6. Does Sam drink much milk or water?

  7. Is it good for her health or for skin?

  8. Is parrot green or yellow?

  9. Has John lost or found his key?

7. Make up alternative questions to the bold words:

  1. He is going to read at the weekend. (to ride a bike)

  2. I would like a cup of tea. (some juice)

  3. His hobby is to ride a horse. (to play football)

  4. Jim loves Kelly. (Jane)

  5. The water is boiling. (not boil)

  6. Kate spoke in a very low (loud)

  7. Anne has been teaching us for 5 years. (6 years)

  8. The girl is from London. (Paris)

  9. We have talked about Rita’s boyfriend for a long time. (Sue)

  10. She must look after the baby because her parents are going out tonight. (grandmother)

8. Make up alternative questions using the information in the sentences:

  1. Mike is in the swimming pool (in the kindergarten).

  2. Jane has gone to the swimming pool (to the library).

  3. He has got a new computer game (a new book).

  4. It’s cold (hot).

  5. My brother has been to Spain (to Italy).

  6. Mr. White is visiting Spain (Germany).

  7. Jack has written the exercise (the story).

  8. Students are writing the exercise (the translation).

  9. My mother has gone to school (to work).

  10. Children are at school (at the sportsground).

9. Continue the alternative questions:

  1. Is it raining or …?

  2. Will Ann be at home at 11 o’clock or …?

  3. Do you work here or …?

  4. Can they come tomorrow or …?

  5. Has John bought a car or …?

  6. Did you come here on bicycle or …?

  7. Shall I answer this question or …?

  8. Do the children or…wake up at seven o’clock?

  9. Are you speaking English or …?

  10. Was Tom or …responsible for this work?

Lesson 7

Olympic Games

1. Translate the words:

stick, canoe, mat, rings, ball, dumbbell, bow, puck, racket, flippers, helmet, club, skates, boots, barbell, gloves, net, basket, sledge, pole, parallel bars, paddle, gate, arrow, goggles, air rifle, javelin. 

2. Which of these sports are indoor, outdoor, winter, summer, water sports:

Figure skating, draughts, windsurfing, table tennis, skiing, yachting, cycling, rugby, boxing, rock climbing, cricket, water polo, hockey, synchronous swimming, basketball, chess, water skiing, curling, roller skating, rowing, gymnastics, motor races, volleyball, diving, baseball, karate, skydiving, billiards, field hockey, rafting, judo, wrestling

Indoor:

Outdoor:

Winter:

Summer:

Water sports:

3. Read and translate the text “The Olympic Games”:

The first record of the Games dates from 776 BC in Greece. The important sports in the original Olympic Games were running, jumping, wrestling, throwing the discus and throwing the javelin. Only men competed, and they wore no clothes in order to have greater freedom of movement.

The first modern Olympiad took place in Athens in 1896. Since then the Olympic Games have been held every four years with only two exceptions because of the two world wars. There may be Summer and Winter Games. In modern times the Olympic Movement has become an enormous and expensive organization. The Winter Olympic Games are a multi-sport event held every four years.

The Winter Olympics have been hosted on three continents, but never in a country in the southern hemisphere. The United States has hosted the Games four times. France has been the host three times. Austria, Canada, Italy, Japan, Norway and Switzerland have hosted the Games twice. In 2014 Sochi was the first Russian city to host the Winter Olympics. Our government, Olympic Sports Committee and sportsmen prepared for this event with great enthusiasm. Our sportsmen won the greatest number of golden medals. We all supported our sportsmen. Our country is very proud of them.

4. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.

  1. The Olympic Games were held in Ancient Greece.

  2. Both men and women took part in the Games at that time.

  3. The men wore no clothes because of the hot weather.

  4. The Olympic Games have been held every four years since 776 BC.

  5. The programme of the modern Olympic Games consists of running, jumping, wrestling, throwing the discus and throwing the javelin.

  6. The Olympic Games are held every four years. There were only two exceptions because of earthquakes.

  7. The Winter Olympics have been hosted in various countries on three continents.

  8. The USA and France have hosted the Games several times.

  9. Sochi was the first Russian city to host the Winter Olympics.

  10. The Winter Olympics have never been held in Russia before.

5. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the box.

athletes, Zeus, circles, competitors, motto

Some facts about the Olympic Games

1. The five Olympic … represent the five continents: Africa, North and South America, Asia and Australia. They are connected to symbolize the sports friendship amongst all the people in the world.

2. The Olympic … “Citius, altius, fortius” means “Faster, higher, stronger” in Latin.

3. The first official Olympic Games took place in 776 BC. They were held in honour of …, the supreme god of the Greeks.

4. The Games are meant to promote respect amongst all the … , regardless of their age, religion or sex.

5. To get an idea of the number of competitors participating in the Olympic Games – at Sydney 2000, 10 300 … came involved in 28 sports, 292 events and 635 matches.

6. Study the material «Tag-questions»

В разговорной речи нам иногда приходится переспрашивать собеседника, уточнять информацию или выражать сомнение. Когда мы знаем, о чем речь, но нам необходимо подтверждение, мы используем форму разделительного вопроса в английском языке (tags questions).

Разделительные вопросы имеют несколько названий. Вы можете встретить следующие варианты названия этого типа вопросов:

Разделительный вопрос – Disjunctive question;

Вопрос с хвостиком – Tag question или Tail question

Разделительный вопрос называется так, потому что состоит из двух частей, разделенных запятой: основной части и «хвостика». Если первая часть утвердительная, то хвостик будет содержать отрицание. Если же первая часть содержит отрицание, то хвостик, наоборот, будет утвердительным.

«Хвостик» в таких вопросах состоит из двух частей: вспомогательного глагола, модального глагола или глагола to be (зависит от того, что было использовано в первой части); действующего лица, используемого в основной части, выраженного местоимением.

Mike is a student, isn’t he?

Nancy hasn’t a car, has she?

There are many books in library. aren’t there?

We study at college, don’t we? (Present Simple, вспомогательный глагол – do)

Ben lives in Semyenov, doesn’t he? (Present Simple, вспомогательный глагол – does)

They are reading a book now, aren’t they?

Kate and Fred haven’t bought a flat, have they?

7. Continue Tag-question in the Present:

1. He should go, …?

2. It is the most interesting book, …?

3. Ben and Helen can’t see him, …?

4. There are no toy shops in this street, …?

5. The cats are lazy, … ?

6. The apple was tastier than the banana, …?

7. Your friends can’t come on Sunday, …?

8. We can speak English, …?

9. They can’t go now, …?

10. You are not silly, … ?

8. Continue Tag-question in the Past:

1. Bill was in the country, … ?

2. Helen went to the country, … ?

3. His father didn’t go to the country, … ?

4. Mary wasn’t in the country, … ?

5. His parents were on holiday, … ?

6. Her friends spent a month in the country, … ?

7. Her grandparents didn’t like to live in the village, …?

8. It was cold yesterday, …?

9. The boys could play the game, … ?

10. The students met Mr Smith on Sunday, …?

9. Make up Tag-questions:

1. You are busy now.

2. Sally hasn’t had lunch. 

3. There aren’t many people in the library now.

4. He couldn’t go there.

5. You haven’t heard from him for a long time.

6. She knows you.  

7. Sam will be back early today.

8. Granny spent a lot of time on it.

9. There is no chair in the room.

10. Alan was looking for a new job.

10. Add tags to make Tag-questions:

1. Tigers are dangerous animals,

2. They have a wonderful garden,

3. He bought an expensive TV-set,

4. You have a terrible toothache,

5. She has read an interesting book,

6. We gave all possible answers,

7. I asked a foolish question,

8. It will be a useful exercise,

9. His speech was boring,

didn’t I?

haven’t you?

aren’t they?

haven’t they?

hasn’t she?

didn’t we?

didn’t he?

wasn’t it?

won’t it?

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