This project is dedicated for the Christmas celebration loved by millions of people. It's very interesting for pupils to learn something new about this holiday.
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«Проект по теме «Christmas in Britain»»
Secondary School №23, Ulyanovsk Region, The Russian Federation
the pupil of the 6th form
Dimitrovgrad — 2024
— the importance of the project
— aims and problems of research
— hypothesize of research
— methods of research
II. Main part
1. The most important holidays in the UK …………………………..
1.1. Christmas — the most popular holiday in Britain
1.2. Christmas traditions and customs
IV. Conclusion …………………………………………………
V. List of reference books………………………………………
My project is called “Christmas in Great Britain”. I decided to choose this theme because it’s always interesting to explore tradition of other countries. Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. Britain is different from our own country. This is natural. In Britain traditions play a more important part in the life of the people than in other countries.
Some of them appeared ages ago and are unique for one particular country, others can be found all over the world. The way people celebrate this or that holiday can tell much about their culture and way of life.
Tradition and custom are usually passed on from generation to generation. To know customs and traditions means to understand the people, their art and culture better. They can tell us much about the country’s history and the people’s psychology. We learn English at my school. We like it very much and we try to connect it with our future profession. To know and speak English well we must learn British culture and we decided to research it but before it we put some questions for ourselves.
— What British traditions and customs do we know?
— What is the attitude of the British to their culture and traditions?
The aim and the purpose of our research are:
— to learn and find out more about traditions Christmas in Britain. Studying them will help me to understand better the English way of life.
— If I know English language I will understand the British without difficulties.
— It is not enough to know only English I have to study culture too.
To get a better idea of the topic, we have developed a questionnaire, which we asked our friends to fill out. We have questioned ten people of my age.
The information we received helped me in writing this work.
The methods of investigations are:
— Studying of books and information from the Internet
— Analysis of the results
British people are considered to be the most conservative in Europe. They have many traditions, manners and customs of which they can be proud and they carefully keep them up. Britain has preserved its old ceremonies and traditions to a greater extend than any other country in the world.
II. Main part
1. The most important holidays in the UK.
When we speak about British traditions we always remember that there are four parts in Britain – England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Traditions are different in these parts of the country. You already know some of the English traditions and holidays. We hope you remember St. Valentine’s Day, St.Patrick’s Day, Halloween which have also become traditional American holidays. Here are some more facts about old English traditions. One of the old English legends says that London can be the capital of the country, rich and great until twelve black ravens live in the Tower of London. Each has got its name and the keepers carefully look after them. If one of the birds dies, another younger raven takes its place. Londoners believe this legend and always bring some food to give to the birds when they come to the Tower. The keepers cut the bird’s wings a bit as they are afraid that they may fly away.
Another old English tradition is Guy Fawkes Day. Children go out into the streets on the 5th of November with figures like scarecrows. They stand in the streets and squares asking for the usual “Penny for the Guy”. Then with the money they have collected they buy fireworks and burn the guy (the figure like a scarecrow) on their bonfire. People watch fireworks and some people go to parties in the evening.
As we all well know holidays in almost every country can be divided into public and religious ones. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy, most of the population is Catholic and above all it is a small island.
There are only six public holidays in the UK: Christmas Day, Good Friday, Easter, Spring Bank Holiday and Late Summer Bank Holiday, Boxing Day. Public holidays in Britain are called bank holidays because the banks were shut during those days and no trading could be done. Although the banks and offices are still closed during these days, most of shops are open.
1.1. Christmas — the most popular holiday in Britain.
Christmas is celebrated all over the world and no other holiday has developed such a great number of customs and symbols. So let us begin with discussing the most important holiday for many people – Christmas Day. It is celebrated on December 25 in Great Britain.
The Christmas story comes from the Bible. An angel appeared to shepherds and told them that a Savior had been born to Mary and Joseph in a stable in Bethlehem.
For most British families, this is the most important festival of the year, which combines the Christian celebration or the birth of Christ with the traditional festivities of winter. On the Sunday before Christmas many churches hold a carol service where special hymns are sung. Most families decorate their houses with holly and Christmas tree.
There are a lot of traditions connected with Christmas, but perhaps the most important one is giving presents. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them under the Christmas tree to be found on Christmas morning. Children leave a sock or a stocking at the end of their beds on Christmas Eve hoping that Santa Claus will come down the chimney during the night and bring them presents.
The origin of Santa Claus is in Saint Nicholas. Santa Claus wears a red cloak and glasses and is accompanied by his true friend Rudolph the Reindeer. In the traditional story he lives at the North Pole. But now he lives in big shops in towns and cities all over Britain.
1.2. Christmas traditions and customs
A traditional feature of Christmas in Britain is the Christmas tree.
Another old tradition in Britain is Christmas mistletoe. People put a piece of this green plant with its white berries over a door. Mistletoe brings good luck, people say.
Nearly all Christmas food is traditional, but a lot of the traditions are not very old. For example, there were no turkeys in Britain before 1800. And even in the nineteenth century, goose was the traditional meat at Christmas. A 21st century British Christmas dinner is roast turkey with carrots, potatoes, peas and Christmas pudding. Real Christmas puddings always have a piece of holly on the top. The holly on the pudding is part of the decoration.
December 26th is also a public holiday — Boxing Day in the UK. Traditionally boys from the shops in each town asked for money at Christmas. They went from house to house on December 26th and took boxes made of wood with them. At each house people gave them money. This was a Christmas present. So the name of December 26th doesn’t come from the sport of boxing – it comes from the boys’ wooden boxes.
To get a better idea of the topic, we have developed a questionnaire, which we asked my friends to fill out. We have questioned ten people of my age. Below are the questions that where asked with the answers received:
1. What British holidays can you name?
— St. Valentine’s Day, Halloween, Christmas
2. What traditions do British people follow while celebrating these holidays?
Put up a Christmas tree – 95%
Go to church – 30%
Don’t know – 50%
3. Do you think it is good to celebrate holidays of other nations?
Yes – 40%
Don’t know – 60%
The information we received helped me in writing this work.
Christmas Day is a family holiday in Great Britain. Traditionally, everyone gives each other presents; the British decorate their houses, put up Christmas Trees, and children write letters to Santa Claus.
Рождество в Великобритании – семейный праздник. Традиционно все дарят друг другу подарки; британцы украшают дома, ставят елки, а дети пишут письма Санта Клаусу.
Christmas is celebrated on December 25, but everyone gets ready for it long before that. The pre-Christmas period is called Advent, which starts four weeks before the holiday.
Рождество отмечается 25 декабря, но подготовка к нему начинается задолго до этого. Такой предрождественский период называется Адвент, который начинается за четыре недели до праздника.
The symbol of Advent is a wreath with 4 candles, each of which is lit one at a time every Sunday. They are kept alight until Christmas Eve.
Символ Адвента – венок с 4 свечами, каждая из которых зажигается по одной в каждое воскресенье. Так они остаются зажженными до рождественского вечера.
The holiday is impossible without gifts. For that reason, there are sales on Christmas Eve in all cities in England. Shop windows are decorated with figures of angels, Santa Claus, snowmen.
Этот праздник невозможен без подарков. Поэтому в Рождество во всех городах Англии начинаются распродажи. Витрины магазинов украшаются фигурками ангелов, Санта Клауса, снеговиками.
Streets are overcrowded; there are fairs and feasts for children on the squares. On Trafalgar Square, in the center of London, a huge Christmas tree is put up every year, which is a gift from the Government of Norway.
Улицы переполнены; на площадях устраивают ярмарки и праздники для детей. На Трафальгарской площади в центре Лондона ежегодно ставят огромную елку, которая является подарком от Норвежского правительства.
As previously mentioned, Christmas is the family holiday and it is celebrated with loved ones.
Как уже упоминалось, Рождество — семейный праздник, и его принято отмечать в кругу близких людей.
There’s a popular belief amongst the English: a good year beginning makes the whole year good. That’s why Christmas dinner has a variety of dishes, amongst them is plum pudding. Traditionally it was composed of thirteen ingredients, symbolizing Jesus and the Twelve Apostles in Catholic teaching.
Среди Англичан есть поверье: если начало года будет хорошим, то так пройдет и весь год. Поэтому Рождественский ужин – огромное разнообразие блюд, среди которых обязательно есть рождественский пудинг. Традиционно в его состав входят тринадцать ингредиентов, тем самым символизируя в Католической вере Иисуса и двенадцать Апостолов.
The second Christmas day is called “Boxing day”. The reason is that Santa puts the presents under the Christmas tree during the night of the 25th to the 26th of December and the next day, all unpack their present boxes.
Второй день Рождества называется «Днем подарков» (дословно: день коробок). Такое название объясняется тем, что в ночь с 25 на 26 декабря Санта Клаус кладет подарки под елку, и на следующий день все распаковывают подарочные коробки.
One more symbol of the holiday is stockings hanging up on the mantel. A legend is connected to this tradition. Once, Santa delivered gifts, and when getting through a fireplace, he accidentally dropped some gold coins into stockings that were drying there.
Еще один символ праздника – чулки, развешанные над камином. С этой традицией связана одна легенда. Однажды Санта разносил подарки, и, проходя через камин, он случайно уронил золотые монетки в чулки, которые там сушились.
On Christmas Eve, before going to bed, children, in the hopes of getting better presents, leave biscuits or pieces of pie and some milk near the mantel for Santa plus a carrot for his deer Rudolf.
В сочельник перед тем, как пойти спать, дети оставляют для Санты печенье или пирог с молоком, а также морковку для его оленя Рудольфа, чтобы получить хорошие подарки.
Christmas Day is a time for miracles and realization of wishes. On this day everyone gives not only gifts but also postcards. To give cards is an English tradition that showed up in the 19th century when the first Christmas card was printed.
Рождество – время чудес и исполнения желаний. В этот день не только дарят друг другу подарками, но и обмениваются открытками. Дарить открытки – английская традиция, которая появилась еще в 19 веке, когда была напечатана первая рождественская открытка.
And of course, everyone wishes each other “Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!”.
И, конечно же, все желают друг другу «Веселого Рождества и счастливого Нового Года!».
Although Christmas is a religious holiday, it is celebrated by everyone, not only religious people. Nowadays for many people Christmas is just a family holiday when they can get together, have a special dinner and give presents.
Хотя Рождество религиозный праздник, все празднуют этот праздник, не только религиозные люди. Наши дни Рождество для многих людей, это семейный праздник, когда они собираются все вместе, имеют особый обед и дарят подарки.
The celebration of Christmas is preceded by the Season of Advent, it begins about one month before Christmas Day. People spend Advent in different ways. It is a quite important period for some religious people, they spend it preparing for Christmas. For a lot of people, it is just a period when they prepare for the celebration.
Празднование Рождества предшествуется Сезоном Адвент, это начинается почти месяц до Рождества. Люди проводят Адвент по — разному. Это вполне важный период для некоторых религиозных людей, они проводят подготовления для Рождества. Для многих людей это именно период, когда они готовятся к празднику.
There is a lot of things a family might need to do before Christmas Day, such as decoration, shopping for presents, writing cards, making special meals, sending out invitations. It is traditional to buy Advent Calendars for children or even grown-ups. An Advent Calendar is a calendar where each day until Christmas Day is represented by a small box. Children are supposed to open one small box every day. Usually, there is a treat or just something nice in it.
Много мероприятий необходимо семьям выполнять до Рождества, такие как украсить дом, покупки на подарки, писать открытки, приготовить особые кушанья, отправлять пригласительные. Это традиционно покупать Адвент Календарь для детей и даже взрослым. Календарь Адвент это календарь, где каждый день до Рождества отмечается маленьким квадратиком. Дети предполагаются открывать коробочку каждый день. Обычно, обязательно там есть лакомство или угощение, но что-то приятное в ней.
Christmas Day is a public holiday in the United Kingdom, and many people see it as a day they can spend with their families and friends. In December most families buy Christmas trees, put them up in their houses and decorate them. Usually, the decorations include tinsel, baubles, paper snowflakes. The top of the tree is decorated with an angel or star. People also send cards to their friends the cards usually say ‘Merry Christmas!’ or ‘Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!’
Рождественский день — общественный праздник в Соединенном Королевстве и многие люди встречают этот праздник со своими семьями и друзьями. В декабре большинство семей покупают елки, ставят в свои дома и украшают их. Обычно украшения включают мишура, рождественские пузыри, бумажные снежинки. Верхушка елки украшается с ангелом или звездой. Люди также отправляют открытки своим друзьям и обычно говорят: «Счастливого Рождества!» или «Счастливого Рождества или счастливого Нового Года!»
The celebration begins on the 24th of December, on Christmas Eve. Children leave a stocking for Santa Claus who brings them presents during the night. Parents tell their children that Santa knows who has been a good child and who has not. He leaves presents for good children, but he might leave a piece of coal for those children who have not been good. But, of course, usually, children find only presents but not coal in the stockings the next morning. Some people go to church on Christmas Eve, they listen to the Christmas stories and sing carols.
Празднования начинаются 24 декабря, это Рождественский Канун. Дети оставляют праздничные носочки для Санты кто приносит им подарки во время ночи. Родители рассказывают своим детям что Санта знает кто был хорошим ребенком, а кто не слушался родителей. Он оставляет подарки хорошим детям, но он может оставить кусочек угля тем, кто не вел себя хорошо в течение года. Но, конечно, обычно дети находят только подарки, но не уголь в чулочках на следующее утро. Некоторые люди ходят в церковь на Канун Рождества, они слушают Рождественские рассказы и поют народные песни- хороводы.
On the 25th of December children open their presents, it is always a very exciting morning for them! In the afternoon people have dinner. They might pull crackers before it and congratulate each other. Traditionally, most people have a turkey for dinner and, of course, a Christmas pudding. At three o’clock people watch TV, every year the Monarch congratulates everyone and says ‘Happy Christmas’.
На 25 декабря дети открывают свои подарки, это всегда очень волнующее утро для них! После обеда люди имеют обед. Они, возможно, могут потянуть рождественские хлопушки до этого пиршества и поздравить друг друга. Традиционно большинство людей имеют индейку на обед и конечно же Рождественский пудинг. В 3 часа дня люди смотрят телевизор каждый год как Монарх поздравляет каждого и говорит:» Счастливого Рождества».
The 26th of December is called Boxing Day. It has nothing to do with boxing as a kind of athletic competition, the word ‘boxing’ refers to boxes with gifts. In the 19th century, Boxing Day was a day when people shared their food with the poor. Nowadays, Boxing Day is an official holiday in the UK.
На 26 декабря называется День Коробок. Это не имеет никакого отношения как вид атлетических соревнований, слово «боксинг» имеет отношение с коробками от подарков. В 19 веке День Коробок был днем, когда люди делились со своей едой с бедными людьми. Наши дни День Коробок — это официальный праздник в Соединенном Королевстве.
It is a combination of the Christian celebration of the birth of Christ, and the traditional winter holidays.
On the Sunday before Christmas many churches hold a carol service where special hymns are sung. Most families decorate their houses with coloured paper or holly, and they usually have a Christmas tree in the front room. It is decorated with coloured lights and beautiful toys.
Это комбинация Христианских празднования рождества Христа и традиционных зимних праздников. На воскресенье до Рождества многие церкви проводят хоровые службы, где поют особенные гимны. Большинство семей украшают свои дома с цветными бумагами или остролиста, и они обычно имеют Рождественские деревья в главных больших комнатах. Они украшаются цветными гирляндами и красивыми игрушками.
The most important and pleasant tradition of Christmas is the giving of presents. People wrap up their gifts and leave them at the bottom of Christmas tree to be found on Christmas morning. Children leave long socks near their bed hoping that Father Christmas will come at night and bring them small presents, fruits and nuts. Children also write to Father Christmas letters and say what presents they want to get.
Самая важная и приятная часть традиции в Рождество — это дарить подарки. Люди заворачивают подарки и оставляют их под Рождественской елкой чтобы найти их утром. Дети оставляют длинные носочки около своих кроватей надеясь, что Дед Мороз придет ночью и принесет им маленькие подарки, фрукты и орешки. Дети также пишут письма Деду Морозу и говорят какие подарки они хотят получить.
The British Christmas tradition of sending cards dates all the back to 1843. At the time, a gentleman named Sir Henry Cole didn’t have time to send personal messages, so he hired an artist called John Calcott Horsley to design him a card which he could send to lots of people, and that’s how Christmas cards were born.
Today, over a BILLION cards are sent every year in Great Britain alone which is staggering. Yes, you read that right. Christmas cards are serious business!
The John Lewis Christmas advert
A lot of people think it isn’t the Christmas season until the John Lewis Christmas advert is released. Often a little short film telling an emotional story, the advert always pulls on the heart-strings while spreading some festive cheer. As a tradition, the John Lewis Christmas advert only dates back to 2007. It feels like it’s been around a lot longer than that! Everyone has their favourite Christmas advert and here’s mine. Obviously, the Coca-Cola advert is an absolute classic too.
Switching on the Christmas lights
Another sign it’s officially Christmas is switching on the Christmas lights. This holiday tradition began in 1954 on Regent Street in London. Local shops and businesses obviously wanted to attract customers, but they also wanted to show that London wasn’t a dark and ugly place in post-war Britain. Oxford Street quickly followed suit in 1959, and it wasn’t long before this was a tradition all over the country. Today, the annual Christmas lights are usually turned on by some C-list celebrity in a really awkward and pointless event. But hey, that’s Christmas for you!
I feel like Christmas markets have become more and more popular over the years. Originating in Germany, Dresden’s Striezelmarkt was first held in 1434 and is considered the first genuine Christmas market. Now days, you can find them in every major city and town all over the United Kingdom. The Birmingham Christmas Market is the largest Xmas market outside of Germany and many people consider this the best one to visit. London has a fair few too, especially at Winter Wonderland. From drinking gluhwein to eating a bratwurst, this is definitely more of a European Christmas tradition that’s found a home in Britain.
To be honest with you, mulled wine is something I wish I could drink throughout winter; I find it so warm and comforting. Mulled wine is a lot older than you think. Created by the Romans, it dates all the way back to the 2nd century. As the Romans conquered Europe, their love of mulled wine spread. It’s always been thought that mixing wine with spices and fruit is good for your health and a way to stave off illness. However, it wasn’t until the 1890s that mulled wine became associated with Christmas. It’s very easy to make yourself, or you can buy a bottle of mulled wine which is just as good!
Brandy butter is another Christmas tradition in Great Britain. As Christmas is all about drinking and eating as much as possible, brandy butter was born. Completely unnecessary, completely delicious. As the name suggests, this is just brandy and butter mixed together to create a thick cream/spread. For some reason it’s the perfect accompaniment to mince pies or Christmas pudding.
Right, it’s time to talk about some good ol’ British Christmas food. You know mince pies were originally stuffed with minced meat, right? Dating back to the Middle Ages, pies were filled with minced meat, chopped fruit and a preserving liquid. This was a good way of preserving meat without curing or salting it. Today’s mince pies bear little resemblance to the original ones. Heat one up in the microwave, put on a dollop of brandy butter or cream, and it’s one of the finer things you can eat at Christmas.
I always feel sorry for the humble Brussel sprout. Only brought out for Christmas, and only then very reluctantly, they’re confined to anonymity for the other 364 days of the year. I have to admit, I actually really like Brussel sprouts! Saying that, I’m the only one in my family who does, but dammit we have to have them every Christmas. It’s thought Brussel sprouts became popular during the 1800s as the new fancy vegetable to eat. This just happened to be around Christmas time so like all current zeitgeists, everyone wanted them, and that’s how the tradition was born!
Let’s make something as thick as cement, the colour of vomit, that tastes of nutmeg, and serve that up with our Christmas dinner. Bread sauce harks back to Medieval times where they used bread to thicken and bulk out sauces – this was how bread sauce was essentially created. I always feel like bread sauce optimises traditional British cooking. Bland, uninviting, unappealing, and yet so quintessentially British. Thankfully our food has come a long way since the creation of bread sauce! This is definitely one of the weirder British Christmas traditions.
In my family, my dad is the only one who eats Christmas pudding. But as he says, it’s not Christmas unless you have a Christmas pudding. This dark, dense fruitcake is usually the nail in the coffin when it comes to overindulgence.
Christmas (or plum pudding as it’s also known as) started life off as ‘frumenty’. This was a dish made up of beef and mutton with currants, raisons, prunes, spices and wine. Sounds yummy, doesn’t it? By 1595, frumenty slowly changed into plum pudding with eggs and breadcrumbs to make it more of a cake.
Putting a silver coin in the pudding is another age-old custom that is said to bring luck to the person that finds it. In the UK the coin traditionally used was a silver ‘six pence’. The closest coin to that now is a five pence piece!
Midnight mass has become its own weird tradition over the decades. On Christmas eve, midnight mass is supposed to see in Christmas Day as a celebration as the birth of Christ. Instead, it has become a bit of a drunken tradition where people go to the pub, say hello to people they haven’t spoken to in a year, before staggering over the church to belt of some Christmas carols. As far as British Christmas traditions go, this is a lot of people’s favourite.
It’s thought that singing carols commemorating the birth of Christ date all the way back to the 4th and 5th centuries. However, it wasn’t until the 12th century where Saint Francis of Assisi, the Roman Catholic saint of animals and the environment, incorporated upbeat Latin hymns into Christmas services.
The best carols such as Good King Wenceslas were written in the Victorian period. This is because Queen Victoria wanted happier, more upbeat carols to sing at Christmas.
Would it really be Christmas without flimsy paper hats and bad dad jokes? Well that’s what Christmas crackers are all about.
They were invented by a London sweet maker called Tom Smith in 1845-1850. He got the idea from French ‘bon bon’ sweets (almonds wrapped in paper), but added a small saying or riddle within the wrapping of his sweets. They didn’t sell well at first, so to make more of a bang, he created a bang. He added in the fireworks and launched a new range of crackers called ‘Bangs of Expectation!’ in 1861. And the Christmas cracker was born.
Ah the Christmas special. Usually rubbish, occasional brilliant, the Christmas special is when our favourite characters grace our screens again, often for the last time. A couple of stand out Christmas specials are The Office, which perfectly encapsulated how horrible office Christmas parties are. Also, last year’s Gavin and Stacey brought us all a bit of much needed closure on the series. Is there going to be another one? I really hope so!
Kissing under the mistletoe is one of those Christmas traditions in England that everyone goes along with but they have no idea what it’s all about. The tradition of hanging it in the house goes back to the times of the ancient Druids. It is supposed to possess mystical powers which bring good luck to the household and wards off evil spirits. That’s the idea anyway. Today, kissing under the mistletoe is a great tradition that sees lots of office romances blossom.
Swimming in the sea
This is without a doubt one of my favourite Christmas traditions in Britain. All around the country, on the morning of Christmas Day, people dress up in fancy dress and go for an icy dip in the sea. Some people believe this is a great hangover cure, while others think it’s a great way to burn off some mince pies. Either way, it’s a great event that really brings the community together at Xmas.
Widely regarded as England’s longest established Christmas swim, Brighton Swimming Club‘s annual event began in 1860. If you fancy giving it a go yourself, head to Brighton beach early on Christmas morning!
The Queen’s speech
The Queen’s Christmas message is always one of the most watched programs on TV on Christmas Day. A whopping 6.3 million people tuned in last year. The tradition was actually started by the Queen’s grandfather, King George V, when he delivered the first address over the radio in 1932. George V’s first message was written by English writer Rudyard Kipling and transmitted live from a studio that was created for him at Sandringham estate. The tradition carried on, and in 1957, the Queen gave the first televised Christmas speech. She has given a speech almost every year since, usually about the state of world and British politics, and how, if we work together, we can get through anything. That’s it in a nutshell.
Boxing Day Boxing Day is one of the oldest holiday traditions out there. The day after Christmas Day, Boxing Day was invented for people to ‘box up’ their unwanted gifts and give them to the poor who had nothing. Also, Boxing Day was traditionally a day off for the servants. As a present, they often, received a special Christmas box from their masters. There are loads of modern traditions that come with Boxing Day such as the football, hitting the sales and picking up a bargain, and eating your bodyweight in turkey sandwiches.
In conclusion, it is worth noticing that in spite of the popularity of different Christmas customs and traditions, only few people think of the origin of the holiday and traditions. The holiday itself has lost its religious significance for some people. But it doesn’t matter if Christmas is a religious or public holiday for the population, it is still the most widely celebrated festival. Thanks to its numerous traditions that came from ancient times, it is undoubtedly the most colourful holiday of the year and for many people it is a time for eating, drinking. They celebrate it in the same way as ancient Christians many years ago. Christmas customs and traditions are immortal . Learning origin of Christmas makes us think about the link between different generations and importance of the past for us, people, who live in the 21st centure.
I think this work can be used during English classes.
V. List of reference books.
1.Википедия — [Электронный ресурс] — — URL: http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/
2.Матвеенко Э. Английские традиции Рождества: из прошлого в настоящее. — М, 2010 — 32 с.
3.Мороз В.В. «Большая детская энциклопедия празднования Нового года и Рождества». — М., 2010 — 382 с.
4.Рождество в Англии — 2010. [Электронный ресурс] — URL: http://www.greenwich-hotel.ru/blog/english-christmas/
5. Яндекс. Картинки. [Электронный ресурс] http://images.yandex.ru/yandsearch